RHI Website Reference

Beside giving credit to the sources that inform our work, and telling you where we found our information, RHI Website Reference allows you to learn more about colonization – the global face of racism, beginning with the sources below and others in the text.


Zoe Thomas (2019) “The hidden links between slavery and Wall Street” BBC Business reporter, New York

Stephen E. Ambrose (2002) “Founding Fathers and Slaveholders” Smithsonian Magazine

Hugh Schofield (2011) “Human zoos: When real people were exhibits” BBC News, Paris

Joanna Kakissis (2018) “Where 'Human Zoos' Once Stood, A Belgian Museum Now Faces Its Colonial Past” npr

Daniel Boffey (2018) “Belgium comes to terms with 'human zoos' of its colonial past” The Guardian

Bryan Stevenson (2019) Community Remembrance Project, EJI.

Shannen Dee Williams (2020) “The church must make reparation for its role in slavery, segregation” National Catholic Reporter

Kevin Rawlinson (2018) “Prince Charles says Britain's role in slave trade was an atrocity” The Guardian

Wilder, Craig (2013). Ebony and Ivy: Race, Slavery, and the Troubled History of America's History. Bloomsbury Press. p. 113.

Holly Epstein Ojalvo (February 13, 2017). "Beyond Yale: These other university buildings have ties to slavery and white supremacy". USA Today. Archived from the original on March 27, 2019.

Fuentes, Marisa J.; Gray White, Deborah, eds. (2016). Scarlet and Black: Slavery and Dispossession in Rutgers History. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 9780813591520.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "MIT and Slavery". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on 2018-10-05.

Jennifer Schuessler (March 5, 2017). "Confronting Academia's Ties to Slavery". New York Times. Archived from the original on December 15, 2018. 

Jaclyn Diaz Johns Hopkins, “Long Believed an Abolitionist, Actually Owned Slaves,” University Says Archived 2020-12-16 at the Wayback Machine NPR, December 10, 2020.

Laura Krantz (2018) “Looking into its past, MIT finds its first president once owned slaves” Boston Globe.

Lisa Rand (2020) “University of Liverpool accepts slavery roots after new database of links revealed” Liverpool Echo.

Elisabeth O’Leary (2019) How have British universities grappled with links to the slave trade? Reuters

British Transatlantic Slave Trade Records, “Slavery and the British transatlantic slave trade” National Archives Retrieved 3/13/2022

Sean Coughlan (2019) Cambridge investigates its slavery links, BBC

Mark Landler (2020) Britain Grapples with Its Racist Past, From the Town Square to the Boardroom, New York Times

Britain: British universities are examining how they benefited from slavery, The Economist. 

Kevin Dennehy & Susan Gonzalez (2021) “Yale publicly confronts historical involvement in slavery” Yale News

Mike Murawski (2019) “Interrupting White Dominant Culture in Museums” Art Museum Teaching

Akiba Solomon & Kenrya Rankin (2019) “How We Fight White Supremacy: A Field Guide to Black Resistance” Bold Type Books

Courtney D. Cogburn (2017) “Addressing Racism with Virtual Reality” ICAAD

Kate Chappell (2021) “Jamaica plans to seek reparations from Britain over slavery” reuters

David Teather (2005) “Bank admits it owned slaves” The Guardian

Hannah Natanson (2019) They were once America’s cruelest, richest slave traders. Why does no one know their names? The Washington Post

Richard Nelsson (2019) “The Paris peace conference begins - archive, January 1919” The Guardian

Hakim Adi (2012) “Africa and the Transatlantic Slave Trade” BBC; also see Sporcle.com: Why is Africa Called the Dark Continent April 4, 2018

Debert Cook (2014) “15 Major Corporations you Never Knew Profited from Slavery” African American Golfers Digest

Joshua D. Rothman (2021) “The Men Who Turned Slavery into Big Business” The Atlantic

Philip Roscoe (2020) “How the Shadow of Slavery Still Hangs Over Global Finance” The Conversation

Joy Degruy (2017) “Post Traumatic Slave Syndrome: America's Legacy of Enduring Injury and Healing” Joy Degruy Publications Inc.

Laura Thacker (2013) “Public shaming leads to anger, complacency, not open dialogue or change” The Collegian, Kansas State.

Bryan Greene (2021) “After Victory in World War II, Black Veterans Continued the Fight for Freedom at Home” Smithsonian Magazine

Sarah Souli (2020) “Does America Need a Truth and Reconciliation Commission?” Politico Magazine

Bennett Collins (2015) “Examining the Potential for an American Truth and Reconciliation Commission” Carnegie Council for Ethics in International Affairs.

Barbara Smith (2020) “The problem is white supremacy” Boston Globe

Emmanuel Neba-Fuh (2021) “TRIUMPH OF RACISM: The History of White Supremacy in Africa and How Shithole Entered the U.S Presidential Lexicon” Miraclaire                       

David R. Roediger (2022) “Historical Foundations of Race” NMAAHC

Drew Gilpin Faust & Clarence Walker (2022) “White Southern Responses to Black Emancipation” American Experience, PBS. 

Brian Resnick (2017) “White fear of demographic change is a powerful psychological force” Vox

The Official Mapping Police Violence Database (https://mappingpoliceviolence.us) 4/13/2022

Gráda Ó Cormac (2015). "'Sufficiency and Sufficiency and Sufficiency': Revisiting the Great Bengal Famine of 1943–44". Eating People Is Wrong, and Other Essays on Famine, Its Past, and Its Future. Princeton University Press. pp. 38–91. 

Sarah Federman (2022) “How Companies Can Address Their Historical Transgressions Lessons from the slave trade and the Holocaust” Harvard Business Review.

Landes, David S. (1969). The Unbound Prometheus. Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-09418-4.

Center for Social Solutions: “Case Study - Slavery at American Universities” University of Michigan, Retrieved 04/13/2022

Alex Carp (2018) “Slavery and the American University” New York Review of Books

Sven Beckert, Katherine Stevens et al (2011) “Harvard and Slavery: Seeking a Forgotten History” Harvard and Slavery Research Seminar

Richard Reddie (2011) “The Church: Enslaver or Liberator?” BBC

Stacy M. Brown (2018) “The Major Role the Catholic Church Played in Slavery” Amsterdam News

Religions: “Slavery in Islam” BBC, retrieved 4/22/2022

Forough Jahanbaksh, Islam, Democracy and Religious Modernism in Iran, 1953-2000, 2001

Bernard Lewis, The Shaping of the Modern Middle East, 1994

David Brion Davis (1994) “The Slave Trade and the Jews” The New York Review

Jarvis J. Williams (2017) “A Gospel That’s Big Enough to Heal the Racial Divide” Christianity Today.

Clifton Clarke (2017) “How Christians Can Combat Racism Theologically After Charlottesville” Christianity Today.

Tom Gjelten (2020) “White Supremacist Ideas Have Historical Roots in U.S. Christianity” NPR

Cengage (2018) “Trading Companies” Encyclopedia

Roger van Zwanenberg (2020) “Understanding Colonialism: The Early Monopoly Companies and Colonisation” Wealth and Power.

Sabelo J Ndlovu-Gatsheni (2021) “‘Moral evil, economic good’: Whitewashing the sins of colonialism” Aljazeera.